#28 “War Brides” Now Playing at the Theater

You may have been to the theater to see “Coco” or “Star Wars – The Last Jedi” over the holidays.  The first is a 3D computer-animated musical fantasy while the other is an American space epic.  One hundred years ago, the movie fare was very different in Kinsley.  On New Years Day, an “emotional photodrama” entitled “War Brides” was playing.

On Tuesday, January 1, 1918, for a mere dime or 20¢, you could attend one of three showings at 3 p.m., 7:15 p.m. and 9:15 p.m.  Advertised as an an eight-reel film, it was playing in the newly constructed Community Theater, which still stands as the Palace Theater in Kinsley.

Here is a description of what you would have seen:

“War Brides” is an intensely dramatic story, but while it has to do with conditions brought about by war, there are no battle scenes.  A trench is shown, and the effect of the fighting upon the troops, but no battle scene is enacted.  The main story has to do with the sufferings of the women at home.  Joan, the young widow, defies the military authorities, and urges the young women of the village to refuse to become brides of the departing soldiers.  She is imprisoned, but escapes, and leads a band of mourning women to meet the King and protest against war.  Her own individual message she delivers in a most dramatic manner.”  (Kinsley Graphic, December 27, 1917)

Having a film about war without a battle scene is not the only difference a modern audience would find if attending this film.  It was a silent film.  All the dialogue and action would have been read by the audience while a local pianist played the score.

Alla Nazimova, a Russian born classical stage actress, was the star in this her first onscreen role. The original 1916 film did very well in the United States, bringing the studios a profit of $300,000, and was widely acclaimed by critics.  The film did have a pacifist message and was banned in some cities and states. By 1917 it had been withdrawn from circulation on the grounds that “The philosophy of this picture is so easily misunderstood by unthinking people”.

However, by the time “War Brides” came to Kinsley on January 1, 1918, the producer, Lewis Selznick, had edited the film to give it an anti-German slant. 

Now for a little more about the plot which comes with a Spoiler Alert.  When soldiers try to hold Joan back from the King, she kills herself in front of him. The title card on the film for that scene reads, “If you will not give us women the right to vote for or against war, I shall not bear a child for such a country!”

With that,  I will save the topic of women’s suffrage for another post, and hope you are planning a New Year’s celebration that is a little less dramatic.

#27 Carol Singing Christmas Eve

Five hundred thousand fully equipped United States soldiers would spend Christmas in Europe in 1917.  One of them was Harvey Lancaster who had enlisted with Lawrence Crabtree in the Army Aeronautic Corps at Hutchinson and were sent to the training camp at Fort Logan Colorado in April and then on to France where he was stationed until March, 1919.  The Christmas of 1917, he wrote the following from “somewhere in France” to his friend W. D. West:

“We are having nice weather here at present, only a little muddy, but as long as the sun shines and is warm we can get along very nice. Everyone is writing Christmas cards at present.  The army Y.M.C.A. had some Christmas cards printed for us.”  (January 3, 1918 Kinsley, Graphic)
  Maybe Harvey was writing on card like these.

Back home loved ones were sending letters and packages to the men.  The whole community planned a big event for Christmas Eve to remember all the soldiers serving away from home.

100 years later, as we sing carols and enjoy our families, let us not forget all of our service men and women who will not be home for this Christmas.  

 

#26 The Christmas Truce of 1914

The first book coming up in our KHC discussion series on January 10 is “War Horse” by Michael Morpurgo. This novel was inspired by the million British horses that were sent to the trenches of World War 1.  One episode in the book portrays the horse Joey being caught in barbed wire in the no-man land between the trenches.  Both British and German soldiers called a brief truce to venture out and work together to release the horse.

This story is reminiscent of the well known 1914 Christmas truce.  There are many oral histories, diary entries, and letters sent home which describe truces that happened all along the Western front that Christmas.  The differing accounts make it virtually impossible to speak of a “typical” or “universal” truce.  Historians still can’t agree over the specifics.  No one knows where it began or how it spread or if it miraculously broke out simultaneously, but about 100,000 people probably participated in the truce.

Most recall that the truce began with singing carols on Christmas Eve.  Graham Williams of the Fifth London Rifle Brigade described it this way: “First the Germans would sing one of their carols and then we would sing one of ours, until when we started up ‘O Come, All Ye Faithful’ the Germans immediately joined in singing the same hymn to the Latin words ‘Adeste fideles’.  And I thought, well, this is really a most extraordinary thing – two nations both singing the same carol in the middle of a war.”

The next day, both German and British soldiers cautiously emerged from their trenches with Christmas greetings which led to exchanging gifts of cigarettes, food, buttons and hats.  Other stories include sharing a pig roast and having informal games of kick ball.  This Christmas truce also allowed both sides to finally bury their dead comrades, whose bodies had lain for weeks on “no man’s land”.

But this was only a truce, not peace.  The war resumed along the front either later that day or variously on the days up until New Year’s Day.  One veteran from the Fifth Battalion, Alfred Anderson, later recalled, “It was a short peace in a terrible war.”

This break in the fighting may have been a welcome relief for the men, but officers on both sides thought differently.  They believed that stories of the Christmas truce posed a threat to the resolve and morale of their soldiers who could decide that they were not fighting the same war as their superiors.  Adolf Hitler, then a Corporal of the 16th Bavarians, said:  “Such a thing should not happen in wartime.”  He is said to have remarked, “Have you no German sense of honor.”  The men were ordered to not have any fraternization with the enemy, and in the coming years there were other small truces, but none like the Christmas of 1914.

Remembering back to that truce in 1930, one British soldier, Murdock M. Wood, said:  “I then came to the conclusion that I have held very firmly ever since, that if we had been left to ourselves there would never have been another shot fired.”  But that was the direction history would take.  The Great War would continue for nearly four more years resulting in the deaths of nearly 10 million soldiers.

 

#25 Sweaters in time for Christmas

Last week people all over Kinsley had fun wearing their ugly Christmas sweaters, but in 1917, knitting items for the soldiers was a serious, ongoing activity.  The Kinsley Navy Knitting League had been formed by May, 1917 and was receiving donation of $20 from both the Knights of Pythias and the Kinsley Industrial Club.  In September they had a window display in the Edwards, Noble & Company’s store of all the garments they had made before sending them off.  (Currently, this is the location of Circle K Auto Parts. From 1915-1925 the library was in the upstairs.)

When the Navy League committee met on November 26 they reported that the amount of yarn and needles purchased in the last six months was $189.94.  All the money had been donated.  The 71 knitters sent to the Navy League Comfort Committee in Washington, D.C., 55 sets or 220 articles.  They also sent garments to local boys who were in training.  They had made 59 sleeveless jackets, 61 scarfs, and 63 pairs of wristlets.  At this meeting they decided to disband because the Red Cross was doing the same line of work (Graphic Nov. 8, 1917).
  

By fall, ladies were busy on Tuesday and Friday sewing and knitting for the Red Cross.  Groups like the Women’s Missionary Society and the Women’s Civic Club were encouraging their members to knit for the Red Cross.  The following appeared in the High School News in the November 29 issue of the Graphic:  “We have a patriotic school.  Knitting is so common during recess and other spare moments that we hardly notice it anymore.”

Not all ladies knew how to knit when the war began.  This humorous item appeared early on in both the Kinsley Graphic and Mercury.

                         She Tried Anyway
Since knitting for the soldiers has come to be such a popular pastime, many young ladies to whom the art was formerly unknown, have taken it up.  One of these who joined a knitting league, enclosed her name and address in her first contribution, and in time received the following from its receiver:
                         Got yer socks and they almost fit.
                         I use one for a helmet and one fer a mit.
                         Mabe I’ll see yer when I do my bit.
                         But where in the devil did yer learn to nit.

Joking aside, by November, the soldiers were receiving well-knit sweaters which often had a note attached that identified the name and address of the woman who made it.  Some letters of appreciation were sent back and published in the Graphic.  Here are a few:

Mrs. Turner received this note from Private Al Levy in Washington D.C.:  “Have just received the woolen headpiece with your name attached and wish to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to you and women co-workers for their great desire to help the cause of democracy and humanity rule out Kaiserism, militarism, and kultur.”

Marine Lee Crawford wrote from Quantico, Virginia: “Dear Friend, Mrs. West, This evening our company was issued a number of sweaters.  I think everyman received one.  As mine is an unusually good one and it contains your name, I am writing in thank you for it.  We have a sort of habit of comparing gifts, and can surly say I have an unusually good sweater.

Private Percy Fairbrother also wrote from Quantico:  “My Dear Mrs. Aderhold:  It is some days past that I received a sweater, to which a slip of paper was attached with your name and address.  I don’t know just how to start to thank you, but such articles certainly are appreciated by the boys in camp.  There must be a great amount of knitting being done through the country for I think I am safe to say that every man in the camp has a sweater or some such article which has been made in the homes, and I suppose the fellows in other camps fare the same.”

Private Lee Bailey wrote Mrs. Ruth Morse from Quantico:  “I am writing to let you know that someone appreciated the noble efforts which you are putting forth to make life happier for men in uniform.  This morning when I awoke at 5:30 there was a snow two inches deep on the ground.  Twenty minutes later our Company Commander was giving out the sweaters, and I received the one you made.  As I am from the west, also, my home being in Tulsa, Okla., I am not used to this cold weather, and added clothes are certainly appreciated….”

Moss Gill not only wrote Mrs. Frank Trotter to thank her, but he could not resist mentioning a very early football rivalry.  “I was issued a sweater yesterday with your card attached.  Please accept my most sincere thanks for such a useful gift.  The painstaking care and labor used in making it, is testimony of your willingness to do your ‘bit’ in this great war.  The sacrifices to be made later are made easier by our knowing we are so kindly remembered ‘back home’.  By way of explanation, I may say that I am from Perry, Missouri….My main experience with Kansa was in rooting against them at the University of Missouri football games.  Kansas has her share of men in the marine corps, and I find they take to soldering as well as they do to football playing.  Again thanking you for your most kind and useful gift, and assuring you that if I am favored with the opportunity it will be taken to France and work on a willing marine (myself).”

 

 

#24 Do Soldiers Read?

The librarian for Camp Funston, W.H. Kerr, answered the above headline question in the Kinsley Mercury article referenced in the last post (January 31, 1918).  “He told of one young fellow who read continuously throughout the formal opening of the library and the program and seemed perfectly oblivious to everything that was going on around him.  One soldier remarked that he was the ‘end of civilization’ after he had spent the good share of one day looking through the volumes, copying the pictures, reading magazines, and perusing several books.  So anxious to read are some of them that when closing time comes, they are forced to find other reading quarters, and some have had to resort to bath houses and in fact any place where the light was burning.”

Today, many of the books that Mr. Kerr mentioned as being most popular, have been mainly forgotten.  Because the men were being sent to Europe to fight the Germans, “My Four Years in Germany” was often requested.  It was written by James W. Gerard, the recently recalled U.S. Ambassador to Germany.  The soldiers were also anxious to know about the war they would be going to, and that made “Over the Top” popular reading.  It was a firsthand account by Arthur Guy Empey, an American soldier in the British army.  Books by Harold Bill Wright (novelist, essayist, and nonfiction writer) and John Fox Jr. (journalist, novelist, and short story writer) were also very popular, along with the poetry of Rudyard Kipling and James Whitcomb Riley.You can still find poetry by Kipling and Riley and two of Fox’s books, “The Trail of the Lonesome Pine” (c. 1908) and “The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come” (c. 1903) on our library shelves.
      

     

The article said that medical, surgical and veterinarian books were especially needed.  “Such books as these are for specialty work and therefore old editions cannot be used,” said Mr. Kerr.  “Many libraries cherish old books, but nothing of the sort is needed at Funston.”

Classes were taught by Y.M.C.A. educational workers at the camp.  One mentioned had 30 classes in the barracks studying current history, geography, spelling and other subjects taught in schools but at a more advanced level.  “When Mr. Kerr spoke before some high school pupils of the need for such books as algebra and geometry, etc., many of the pupils cheerfully volunteered to give up their books in order that the boys at Funston might get the practical use of the books.”

The article stated that many newspapers from around the country answered the call for reading material by sending one or five copies to each camp.  These were distributed to the Y.M.C.A. halls according to the home locations of the soldiers assigned to each.  Mr. Kerr said, “We have made it our business to find out where the boys are located as we know that most of the Kansas boys are in the 353rd regiment, so we send what extra copies we have of their home papers to Y.M.C.A. No. 7 and we know they will stand a better chance of hearing the news from home.”

When a soldier’s time was up at Camp Funston and they were being shipped out to France, they were given reading material to take with them.  Packages of reading materials were also sent to the hospitals and infirmaries.  Libraries would continue to play a role of securing books for the men throughout the war.

 

Blog # 23 Libraries Gather Books for Troops

As a librarian, I was interested in reading about the role libraries played early on in the war.  In September, the American Library Association called for all the local federated clubs to take up the patriotic work of procuring books and magazines for the soldiers.  In response, Kinsley librarian, Margaret W. Hills, asked for book donations in the September 20 Graphic.  “One of the very great needs of the present hour for our soldier boys is plenty of good reading material.  Throughout the nation all the public libraries are collecting used books for this purpose.  There is not a home in town that cannot spare one or more books.  The week of September 24 to 29 is set for gathering 1,000,000 volumes.  The Kinsley public library will receive at Edwards, Noble & Company’s store all books and forward them without delay for immediate service.  Let us send at least 100 books from Kinsley.  One book is not much to give, but it may do a great deal of good to some soldier boy.  Get the book now and send it or bring it to Edwards, Noble & Company’s store.”

The October 4, Graphic reported:  “Many books to go To Sammies — More than 135 Already Contributed Here, and Many More Expected.  Last week was library week, when a movement was made nationwide to gather library books for the camps.  We were asked to contribute not less than a hundred here and when Saturday night arrived Miss Margaret Hills, who was acting for the Wednesday Night Club, reported 135 volumes ready to go.  She also stated that she expected to have enough books for another shipment by the close of another week.  Good work.  The boys in the camps get awfully lonesome.  The books contributed are a miscellaneous collection, mostly new, and every soldier should be able to find something to suit his taste.”

The term “Sammies” in the headline above was new to me as a name for American soldiers.  The Europeans used it, and it presumably derived from “Uncle Sam”.  “Sammies” did not catch on, but “doughboys” did, the origin of which is unclear.  At this time, the Kinsley Library was not a publicly funded library, but a club library run by the Wednesday Night Club.  It would not be a publicly funded library until 1926.

Back to the book drive news.  In the November 8, Graphic, W. H. Kerr, the librarian serving Camp Funston 3-5 days and week and coming from the Kansas State Normal School (now Emporia State University) wrote to Miss Hills:  “I wish you and your people to know how much we appreciate the shipment of books for our Camp Funston libraries.  It is an unusually good lot of books, and came in very nicely this week in making up a library for one of our new recreation buildings just being opened.”

At the end of the month, Miss Hills announced that more books were needed at Camp Funston, and she would be collecting them to ship out that Saturday.  It was reported in the January 31 issue of the Kinsley Mercury that Librarian Kerr in an address to Kansas librarians stated the following:  “Even though there are about 20,000 books on the shelves and between 4 and 5 tons of magazines are received every week, all of these put together will not meet the steadily increasing demands made upon the library at Funston.”  He went on to emphasize that donated books should be recent, sound and clean “in every sense of the word….

Most of the 4 or 5 tons of magazines and periodicals which the library received weekly are the so-called ‘Burleson 1 cent magazines’, and a remarkable feature is that they are received within a few days after publication.  About 450 copies of the Saturday Evening Post, 300 copies of Literary Digest and over 400 copies of Colliers are received weekly.”  Mr. Kerr said the following magazines, many of which are still familiar to us today, were most needed”  Life, Judge, National Geographic, Popular Mechanics, Popular Science, Illustrated World, Harper’s Monthly, Scribner’s, New Century, Scientific American, Current History from the New York Times, Ladies Home Journal, Vanity Fair, and even copies of the Police Gazette.”

        

 

BLOG #22 Horses and Mules Fought the War too

Besides our “World War I and America” historical series (see Post #20), we will also be hosting a Kansas Humanities Council Talk About Literature in Kansas (TALK) book discussion series entitled “The Great War.”  I chose to use the same books that High Plains Public Radio is using for their Radio Readers book discussion series which begins in January.  On January 10, we will be reading and discussing the 1982 novel, “War Horse” by  Michael Morpurgo .  It is the story of an English farm horse sent to serve the troops in the trenches of France.  The horse is the narrator of this book written for young people.  It recounts the suffering of the horses and mules during the war.  Steven Spielburg produced and directed a 2011 movie with the same title and based on this book.

As mentioned in Blog #14, Troop C of the First Kansas Cavalry was formed just outside Dodge City and several men from Edwards County enlisted in this troop.  From Dodge City they were sent on to Fort Sill, Oklahoma.  Clarence Craft was one of those soldiers.  In an October 14, 1917 letter to his brother, he described Fort Sill to be a very “…poor place.  They say the wind blows in Kansas, but this has got it beat a mile, and blows all the time.”

Clarence goes on to tell of cavalry life at Fort Sill.  “It keeps the bunch busy on guard and taking care of the horses around here, so only get to drill about one and never more than two days out of the week.  There is close to 5,000 head of horses and mules here now that the three troops have to take care of, or help rather.  There has been a quartermaster corps helping the last couple of days.  They only haul the hay or part rather.  There are hayracks to feed hay in and a trough to feed grain in.  They feed two times a day.  It sure takes some hay and grain, oats, to feed them.  It takes 240 bushels of oats a day to feed the horses in the corals, besides the ones they have in stables and is about 300 head in the stable, and somewhere near a couple of carloads of hay.  They feed them pretty good for a horse that is worked is allowed twelve pounds a feed.”

Some of those Fort Sill horses came from Kansas. Throughout the fall and winter of 1917, George McLaughlin, a Kinsley breeder with a sales stable north of the tracks (at the corner of Massachusetts Ave. and Fifth St.), advertised to buy horses and mules.  The September 27 Graphic reported: “George McLaughlin shipped a car of army horses and mules to Oklahoma today.  Last week he shipped in a carload from Hanston and is holding them here for the government inspector, who must first pass on them before the government will ratify the selling contract.”

Last spring, when I first started researching the news in the local paper, I came upon a disturbing report.  The editor wrote in the July 12 Graphic:  “During these strenuous times when everything is being used which has here-to-fore been discarded, a protest should be made against an operation which is being carried on along the trenches in France.  The American mule, that most noble and useful animal, is being made to undergo an operation which makes it impossible for it to bray.  If the mule is separated from its bray, it might just as well be discarded altogether for the two properly go together and it seems almost criminal that such proceeding should be allowed to go on.  The reason given is that the enemy is too apt to learn the location of the trenches from them.  The mule might be trained and employed in some manner in the signal corps or some other use found for the bray, but by all means do not separate the two.”

This fence pictured below is around the contaminated forbidden no-man land of the Battle of Verdun, France.  It displays the shoes of some of the mules and horses which died there.
Click here more information about this area

 

Post # 21  John P. Wire’s Experience with the Selective Service

In Post #19, I mentioned finding Raymond Smith’s graduation picture in a scrapbook made by Louise Wire.  Louise Wire was married to John E. Wire.  Their son, John P. Wire, was born on May 16, 1892 and was in the same 1912 Kinsley High School graduating class as Raymond.

Another item I found in Louise’s scrapbook was John P.’s draft classification card.
It appears that on January 2, 1917, John, age 25, received a 1 classification.  According to the Graphic, John was one of 54 men who filled out a required questionnaire with the local exemption board.  These men would be the first on the selective service list.  They would be sent to training camps when the next call was made provided they passed the physical examinations and were not aliens.  John was notified to appear with 31 others for a physical examination on January 28, 1917.

In the next week’s paper (January 31, 1918 Graphic), it was reported that 10 of these men passed their physical examinations and were fit for military service.  However, five men were rejected by the board, and John P. was one of those five.  That is where I find it a little confusing, as the card above dated February 26, still has John classified as 1 and “qualified for military service.”

The newspaper clipping accompanying the draft notification in the scrapbook is from the May 16 Graphic where it appears John was called to report to Camp Funston for training.  However, he would not be there long.  The June 13 Graphic stated, “John Wire and Walter Haney, who were among the last bunch of boys to go to Camp Funston, were rejected for general military service and came back here Saturday.”  It seems that John P. had not passed his physical at Camp Funston.  John Wire, Jr. suggested to me that his father was rejected due to flat feet.

I imagine that this six month time span might have been a very unsettling time for the Wire family.  I did find another item reported in the Graphic during this time when John P’s military fate was being decided (February 14, 1917).   John P.’s mother, Louis, was a member of the Country Women’s Club.  The Graphic reported that at this club’s February 28 meeting, “Mrs. John E. Wire would deliver a paper entitled “What lasting benefits will be derived from this war.”  It is too bad that we do not know what she wrote in her paper.

 

# 20 You are invited to the “World War I and America” Series

Spent today finalizing our winter discussion series.  I hope you live close enough to attend!  It is going to be a great one.  We will be meeting  on Sunday afternoons, 2-5 p.m. on January 14, February 18, March 18, and April 15.

World War 1 and America” is designed to bring veterans and their families together with the general public to explore the continuing relevance of the war by reading, discussing, and sharing insights into the writings of Americans who experienced it firsthand.

We are able to host the series because a two-year initiative of Library of America presented in partnership with The Gilder Lehman Institute of American History, the National World War i Museum and Memorial, and other organizations, with generous support from The National Endowment for the Humanities.   Additional funding comes from the Kansas Humanities Council, a non profit cultural organization promoting understanding of the history, tradition, and ideas that shape our lived and build community.

You can see/print a series flyer and register for the series by visiting the Kinsley Library website:  www.kinsleylibrary.info .  Her are some of the highlights.

Larry Burke is our scholar who will be leading a series of interesting talks and discussions every month.  He is retired from teaching history for 43 years at Dodge City Community College.  He is also a decorated Vietnam War veteran.  He has received numerous academic awards, published book reviews in the Journal of Military History, wrote a short story entitled Quon Loi which won him recognition and was published by Vietnam Generation Journal and Kansas Voices.

Each month we also have what I call PLUS features.  If you watched Ken Burns’ documentary, The Vietnam War, you would have seen, John Musgrave,  a native Kansan, prominently featured.  Since the documentary, he is in national demand to speak, but he has graciously agreed to join us in March to tell us about his experiences during and after the war.  He was gravely wounded and not expected to make it off the battlefield.  However, he did  survive to return home to a government which considered Vietnam Veterans as “expendable”, to the World War II generation who considered them “losers”, and to war protesters who called them “baby killers”.  He became an anti-war activist and member of Vietnam Veterans Against the War.  Today he actively counsels those who fight in American wars.  

In February, we have Mike and LaVetta Stephens of LaCrosse bringing a collection of World War I artifacts from their “Museum of the Common Soldier”. These will be items that soldiers carried, guns, uniforms, and other military items.

In April we will have a panel of veterans on board to compare and contrast their experiences in the more recent wars with World War i.

This is the seventh year we have hosted a series.  They have always been popular and this one looks to be even more so.  Again, hope you live close enough to drive to the Kinsley Library.  And please tell others, especially veterans, about “World War I and America”.

                            

#19 Young People Support Soldiers

This week John Wire, Jr. brought in one of his grandmother’s (Louise) scrapbooks as I had requested information about the confiscation of a large quantity of illegal liquor by his sheriff father, John P. Wire, Sr.  After scanning that very interesting 1942 picture, I couldn’t resist looking through the scrapbook for other items we might add to the library archive.  What treasures it contains!

There were pictures of the 1912 Kinsley High School graduating class of which John’s father was a member.  Among them was a picture of Raymond Smith, the man who wrote the letter I quoted from in the last two posts.



In the September 20, 1917 Graphic, I found a little more about Raymond’s entry into service and the support he was given by his friends in the Methodist Sunday School class.

“A Farewell Party.  A bunch of the M.E.A. Sunday-school boys met at O. E. Smith’s residence Tuesday night and routed Raymond Smith out of bed and gave him a farewell party, as he left the next day for Camp Funston.  The boys gave Raymond a treat to some fine watermelon and presented him with a new testament which pleased him very much.  The boys left at a late hour and wished Raymond all the good luck possible.  Raymond thanked the boys very much for remembering him, and promised to honorably represent the M.E.A. Sunday-school class in whatever branch of the army service he is assigned to.”

Six weeks later, the November 8th Graphic reported:

“Monday evening the Senior Young People’s Department of the Methodist Sunday school gave a “Soldiers All Party” in the church parlors.  Letters from William Timken, Raymond Smith, Kathleen Riley, Ruth Craft, and Glenna Eslinger were read.  Then the young people, about seventy-five in number, wrote chain letters to fourteen absentees, most of whom are in the army.  Patriotic music and conversation of war topics closed the evening.  The idea of service was uppermost in the entire program.” 

Note that the young ladies mention had left Kinsley to attend nursing school in Colorado (Kathleen Riley and Ruth Craft) and to become a Methodist deaconess in Detroit (Glenna Eslinger).  Glenna served as a  pastor’s assistant, a role “deemed gender appropriate by church and state”.